Mar 31 Takeoff and Landing Threat Reduction

Filed Under Threat and Error Management
Takeoff and Landing Threat Reduction ppt presented by SW Region FAAST Prrogram Manager James McElvain to DPEs and CFIs..
• 42% of accidents occur during the landing phase of flight and account for 3.3% of the fatalities.
• 15% of accidents occur during the take off phase of flight, and account for 14% of fatalities.
• With well over 50% of the GA accidents due to Take Off and Landing issues, this area is the key to large scale accident reduction.
CFI’s we need your help. We have a LOSS of Control Problem!

FASTeam logo
FASTeam logo
review the attached ppt for more information, or visit the FAASTeam website to view Takeoff and Landing Threat Management
And I’ll add, a stabilized approach is key. If you aren’t on speed, on glidepath, and properly configured at 250-500 feet agl in VMC (500-1000 feet agl IMC), GO AROUND! You’re flying because you like to, right? GO AROUND and get more flight time. Go Arounds need practice too!
Fly Smart

Crosswind Landing
Crosswind Landing
AOPA’s info on Crosswind Landings

Mar 31 SMS for Helicopter Operators

Filed Under Safety Management Systems
I met John Kemp at a recent Human Factors conference, he is the Director of Safety for Era Helicopters. They have established a SMS program and have a nice website to look at, that lays out the basics of their program and commitment to quality.
Check it out
Era Helicopter
Era Helicopter

Era Helicopters

Mar 30 Runway Safety Forum
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
Well, considering the worst aviation disaster of all time was a collision on the ground, these forum notes should be required reading for all pilots, controllers and personnel operating ground vehicles on the airport.
Thank you NTSB for sponsoring this Runway Incursion Forum.
To everyone who operates on the airport surface area: slow down, look and listen. Be sure to notify airport managers if you discover poorly marked areas, missing signs, etc. Take the initiative to identify all hazards that can cause injury and damage to property.
Hey, all you airports out there, buy some paint and get the enhanced markings put down!

Mar 27 NASA Aviation Safety Reporting Program
Filed Under Safety Management Systems, Human Factors
Here’s a brief I found on NASA ASRS, a confidential reporting system that is improving our aviation system. The program is funded by the FAA and administered by NASA. Due to its existence outside the fiscal scope of both organizations, funding has always been a critical issue for this program. There is no more effective weapon against aviation mishaps than ASRS and the quality information that it generates. When you talk about system safety and human factors research, you have to mention the ASRS program, or you will explode. Check it out. It deserves your interest and support.
NASA ASRS Check out their site, fill out a report, search the database, read Callback
Fly Smart Clark

Mar27 National Center for Aircraft Technician Training (NCATT)
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
I just found this great aviation maintenance program, almost in my backyard. What is important about the work they are doing is development of standards for technicians. From there information can be gathered and analyzed, then used to guide continuous improvement of the aviation system.
Fly Smart
NCATT project headquarters is located at Tarrant County College under the direction of Floyd Curtis, division chair of TCC Aeronautical Training. TCC partner institutions in this project include Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Pennsylvania College of Technology, San Jose State University, Weatherford College and the United States Air Force. “It’s important to note that NCATT is an aviation industry formed and governed organization, established to serve our industry,” said Curtis. The aviation industry stakeholders along with the NSF partners have established:
Industry standards for training and certifying Aircraft Electronics Technicians;
Curriculum supporting the national standards;
An industry developed and recognized certification program for aircraft electronic technicians; and
An accreditation for institutions meeting the established standards.
Learn more about NCATT

Mar 25 Ten Steps to a Safety Management System
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
Excerpts from “Ten Steps to create a Safety Management System”, from the ICAO Safety Management Manual (SMM)#1 PLANNING
Experience, communications, resources.
All parties engaged in, and committed to the SMS. Safety information is actively sought, safety is a shared responsibility, safety-related information is disseminated to all affected personnel.
The organizational structure facilitates:
— lines of communication
— a clear definition of authorities, accountabilities and responsibilities.
Formal mechanisms (such as safety assessments and safety audits) are in place for the systematic identification of hazards.
Criteria are established for assessing risks. Risks are analysed and ranked. Viable risk control measures are evaluated. Management takes action to reduce, eliminate or avoid the risks. Staff are aware of the actions taken to avoid or eliminate identified hazards. Procedures are in place to confirm that the actions taken are working as intended.
Each hazard and incident report is evaluated with further safety investigation as necessary. Safety lessons learned are widely disseminated.
Analytical tools (and specialist support) are available to support safety analyses.
Recognize that all levels of the organization require training in safety management and that the needs vary across the organization.
The SMS is well documented in a safety management manual. Documents are updated regularly and are readily available to those who need them. Safety databases are used to support safety analyses and performance monitoring.
Safety performance indicators are agreed upon and realistic safety targets established. Adequate resources are allocated to the safety oversight and safety performance monitoring functions. Input is sought and provided without fear of repercussion. Regular safety audits are conducted in all operational areas of the organization. Safety oversight includes the systematic review of all available feedback, for example,safety assessments, quality assurance program results, safety trend analyses, safety surveys and safety audits. Findings are communicated, and reform measures are implemented as required to strengthen the system.
Ten Steps
Fly Smart

Mar 24 Human Error by James Reason
Filed Under Safety Management Systems, Human Factors
just received the book Human Error by James Reason, which focuses on the understanding of human error mechanisms. It is in its 17th printing, 1990-2006. If you have not read this book, leave this webpage immediately, go to amazon and order it…now…do it. Then come back here.Any time you read about latent and active error, you are reading about the works of Reason and Rasmussen, and about what happens when theory meets practice.
Here’s a Personal Perspective ppt presented at a Human Factors seminar in Helsinki 2006. Enjoy.
Fly Smart

Mar 21 FSF Basic Guide to Human Factors
Filed Under Human Factors, Automation Resource Management
From the FSF Basic Guide to Human Factors, a quick recap on development of CRM…“CRM has been used with in the aviation industry for more than 20 years undergoing several evolutions.
1st evolution: emphasized changing individual styles and correcting deficiencies in individual behavior with a heavy focus on psychological testing.
2nd evolution: represented a focus on cockpit group dynamics, was more modular, and dealt more with specific aviation concepts related to flight operations.
3rd evolution: came a broadening of scope, specifically, training began to take into account the characteristics of aviation systems in which crew must function and expanded to areas out side the cockpit (e.g., cabin crews, maintenance personnel),
4th evolution: came integrating and proceduralization.
5th evolution: represents an awareness that human error is inevitable and can provide a great deal of information (Bowers et al., 2001). “CRM is now being used as a way to try to manage these errors by focusing on training teamwork skills that will promote (a) error avoidance, (b) early detection of errors, (c) minimization of consequences resulting from CRM errors. Programs are beginning to go beyond error management to include a focus on threat recognition and management. (Bowers et al., 2001, p. 642).”
FSF Basic Guide to HF developed by Curt Lewis (no relation) and Sylvia Hughes.
Threat and Error Management is the latest generation. There are also some interestng comments on perception, memory and mental models. New systems will need to consider not only shared mental models of humans, but also the interface with the next advancements in automation.

Mar 19 Human Factors for Maintenance

Filed Under Human Factors
Here is an awesome presentation on Human Factors for Maintenance prepared by Joe Schmaltz of Bell Helicopter, which he presented at a local FAASTeam conference. The conference was hosted by the FAASTeam Program Manager in Ft Worth, Steve Buckner and coordinated by John Fullingum, a FAASTeam Rep. Bell Helicopter generously donated use of their academic facility, then gave a hangar deck and flight line tour.Here is Joe’s great ppt on Human Factors for Maintenance
Bell 412EP
Bell 412EP

Fly Smart

Mar 18 Threat and Error Management in a Nutshell

Filed Under Safety Management Systems, Human Factors, Automation Resource Management
The Threat and Error Management Model was developed by Dr Bob Helmreich and the UT Human Factors Project and is the 6th Generation of CRMHere’s the model in a nutshell…
Focused on future events
-Operational factors-Aircrew, supervisory, maintenance, ATC,…
-Environmental factors-Turbulence, low vis, ice, rain, night time…
Operational and Environmental factors are managed through proper planning at…
-Strategic Level-Flight Ops Manual, OpSpecs, Aircraft Manuals, Training
-Tactical Level-Contingency options, Resource Management
Effective communication is key, before, during and after event
Focused on current and past events
First Goal: Avoid
-Develop plan
Second Goal: Manage
-Manage workload
-Maintain Situational Awareness & Assessment
Third Goal: Mitigate
-Limit adverse consequences
Comparing actual flight path and system performance to
intended path and performance
Ensure actions result in desired outcome
Error avoidance – Detection - Mitigation
One tool to use = “CAMI”
Confirm automation input
Activate system
Monitor performance
Intervene to prevent undesired states
TEM is the next generation of Team Resource Management
Here is a TEMM ppt prepared by the UTHFRP with two case studies.
Fly Smart

Mar 18 Aviation Leadership
Filed Under Safety Management Systems, Aviation Leadership
Aviation-the art of operating of aircraft
-the position or office of a leader, a person who inspires or guides others
-the capacity or ability to lead
-to show the way to by going in advance, guidance, direction
-to guide behavior or opinion
Acquiring aeronautical knowledge, airmanship skills, utilizing resources, building experience and proficiency are all part of a continuous improvement process. Navigation has been reduced to calculator simplicity. Modern autopilots and electronic displays have significantly reduced a pilot’s workload. Aircraft are designed safer. These factors have combined to reduce the mishap rate, but what is key to further reduction is the study and application of leadership skills. Aviation today requires administrative management and aeronautical decision making skills (leadership) as prerequisites for safety and efficiency, to realize the best return on your core foundation.
Here’s a review of some Aviation Leadership traits and principles.

Mar 18 FAA AC on Safety Management Systems
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
What are the safety benefits of a Safety Management System (SMS)?
A Systematic Managerial approach to Safety is even more important to a basic weekend or business flyer. You need to maximize the return on investment of your limited resources.

Here is a SMS ppt I developed from the FAA Advisory Circular 120-92
Introduction to SMS for Air Operators
Key concepts are communications, just culture and continuous improvement.
Fly Smart

Mar 18 How’d ya Like to be a Ground Controller at JFK?
Filed Under Human Factors, Multimedia
Listen to this ATC tape, and see if you can pick out who is flailing, who is trying to help out and who is getting snippy. Think about how you would react in this situation, from ATC and the pilots’ standpoint. What Human Factors are at work here? What are the Threats, and how can they develop into Error? What are the consequences of Error if two jumbos collide on the ground? How would you manage this hazard (and “stay away from JFK” doesn’t count”)! Professionalism goes a long way here, in keeping the situation stabilized and avoiding another Tenerife.
JFK ATC on a good day. Like the guy says, go visit a tower someday if you can. These folks do some amazing things in their 4 dimensional world, and have my utmost respect.

Mar 16 FAAST Focus
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
Under the new FAAS Safety Team program, volunteer reps are self directed to present these topics and/or activities whenever possible. FAA Safety Program Managers are also here to assist and support you.
Here are the special emphasis items that we are targeting in the Ft Worth district:
Take-off and Landings (x-wind)
Loss of control during IMC. (instrument approaches).
Aeronautical Decision Making
Improper installation of Parts
Improper Inspection of Aircraft or Parts
TFR’ and Prohibited airspace
Education Career Days (schools, colleges, etc.)
Maintenance Human Factors
Check out Links to find information on these topics, and sign up for FAA Safety Seminar notifications on the FAA Safety site
I also have some information posted under files on my google safety group Ft Worth Aviation Safety Program
Fly Smart
Kent Lewis

Mar 15 Automation Monitoring
Filed Under Automation Resource Management
The more things change, the more they stay the same. Here is a NASA Callback written 10 years ago, addressing human-machine interface issues associated with flight deck automation. This call back addresses the proactive nature of monitoring duties vs reactive connotation of Pilot Not Flying.Callback 219

Mar 14 Roadmap to Just Culture
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
In my view, a vibrant safety culture depends critically upon first negotiating where the line should be drawn between unacceptable behavior and blameless unsafe acts. There sill always be a grey area between these two extremes where the issue has to be decided on a case by case basis. This is where the guidelines provided by A Roadmap to a Just Culture will be of great value. A number of organizations have embarked upon this process, and the general indications are that only around 10 percent of actions contributing to bad events are judged as culpable. In principle, at least, this means that the large majority of unsafe acts can be reported without fear of sanction. Once this crucial trust has been established, the organization begins to have a reporting culture, something that the system with an accessible memory, which, in turn, is the essential underpinning to a learning culture. There will, of course, be setbacks along the way. But engineering a just culture is the all-important early step; so much else depends on it.” (Reason, James, Forword to A Roadmap to a Just Culture, GAIN, 2004) Roadmap Reprinted with permission from the Global Aviation Information Network GAIN

Mar 14 National Plan for Civil Aviation Human Factors
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
National Plan for Civil Aviation Human Factors (A NASA, DoD and FAA initiative)Two goals:
1. Reducing error in human-system interactions
2. Increase efficiency of human-system performance
The national agenda focuses on 2 major elements
1. Human-centered automation
2. Selection and training
3. Human performance assessment
4. Information management and display
5. Bioaeronautics

-Application of research:
1. Create environment for change
2. Develop HF education and training programs at all levels
3. Equip personnel and facilities with modern tools and techniques of the HF engineering discipline.
4. Develop infrastructure to translate and disseminate human factors products.

This is where the focus of my work is. Why change? Quality systems embrace continuous improvement, everyone should always be learning. The text and links on this site are just a few of our tools. The context that we bring is the user/operator context. You are the expert in your particular field, the person with the most intimate view of the processes that defines your immediate environment. Efficient research must include the context of environment and mental model, then education and training can be developed to support preservation of assets (dat’s you!) and attainment of business goals. Doing it right is what counts.

Mar 14 Human Factors for Dummies
Filed Under Human Factors
I was asked by my local FAASTeam Program Manager to to create a presentation on Human Factors (HF). Every mishap has HF roots, and the goal of a robust safety program is to identify HF hazards and develop mitigation strategies that prevent mishaps.

Mar 14 Checklists
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
Never operate or maintain an aerospace vehicle without a checklist.

Mar 14 Super Huey Okinawa
Filed Under Multimedia

Here’s a photo from 1993 of Clark Kent Lewis flying the mighty Super Huey (UH-1N) on a Close In Fire Support (CIFS) to Ie Shima.

Mar 13 Our safety google group
Filed Under Safety Management Systems, Aviation Leadership
Join our aviation safety program google group to exchange information. Group is based in Ft Worth Texas, but safety ideas are universal.

Mar 13
Filed Under Multimedia
I’m somebody! I managed to get a photo posted on

Mar 13 Team Safety Program for you
Filed Under Safety Management Systems
Everyone can benefit personally and professionally from a structured safety program. Some team members benefit from collaboration with a commercial or miltary safety department, but where does that leave individuals and small groups? Let’s discuss a model safety program and what assets are in place to create your own tailored safety program. I’ll list each major component below and offer some ideas on assets.A Safety Program consists of four major components:
1. A formal accident prevention program:
You can work with the FAA Safety Team, a collaboration of local program managers, volunteer aviation safety representatives and industry team members. FAASTeam services are funded by tax dollars and complimented by experienced volunteer time and talent. SO… if it’s paid for, why not use it? The critical component of this program is the desire to work together as a team to continuously improve personal and system safety.
2. Team safety and accident prevention education and training: Sign up for seminar notification at FAA Attend a safety seminar and get to know your local safety reps (yes, you have people!).
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) offers fantastic online education. Join a local business, pilot, controller, mechanic association. See Links for even more ideas.
3. An internal reporting system to allow Team members to report incidents and recognized hazards:
There are many ways to report hazards. Call the tower or airport manager. Go to the FAA safety website for points of contact or call your local FSDO. Their numbers can be found on their “about” pages. Another excellent conduit is your local safety team rep.
4. An internal assessment program to monitor the effectiveness of the Safety Program.
The Wings Program is a fantastic personal recurrency program. Check it out at FAA Safety Awards Team up with your local FAASTEam reps to develop a buddy system where you periodically crosscheck activities with another colleague.
Governmental regulations require business and commercial aviation to establish employee training programs. Due to the complexities of these regulations, Safety Manager/Officers aid and advise managers and supervisors in identifying appropriate training methods. Consider the FAASTeam to be your personal Safety Representatives and Fly Smart.

Mar 12 Herb’s Wisdom
Filed Under Aviation Leadership, Flying Safety for Dummies
I interviewed Herb Webber for an Aviation Safety Seminar series, and asked if he had any pearls of wisdom from 65 years plus of aviation experience. Here’s what he said.1. Use a checklist.
2. Look outside.
3. Never fly hard IFR in a single engine airplane.
Herb flew B-17s for the Army (including Memphis Belle)and big jets for American Airlines, and is still active delivering airplanes for Van Bortel . He states thet he “flunked retirement”. I am amazed by his flexibility and resilience, and grateful for his dedication to volunteer aviation safety work. He is impressed with the new glass cockpits in GA airplanes, but refers youngsters like me back to Pearl #2, that is to use the most important piece of glass in the aircraft, the windscreen, to your see and avoid advantage.
FLy Smart




9|Monitor and Cross Check Strategies for General Aviation]]= Filed Under Automation Resource Management | Leave a CommentMonitor and Cross Check Strategies for General AviationHere is a presentation I put together for the FAASTeam. The subject matter addresses challenges associated with automation resource management.Fly SmartClark




12|Human Factors Gurus]]= Filed Under Human Factors | Leave a CommentHuman Factors Associates, Inc. (HFA) started as a small firm in 1994 that provided consulting services to industry and government in the traditional fields of human factors engineering and training system development. Incorporated in September, 2002 by Dr. Anthony Ciavarelli, the company’s primary business is to provide organizational assessment and intervention strategies designed to improve performance of people and their organizations.Learn more at HFADr C taught Aviation Psychology at the Naval Postgrad School Aviation Safety Officer course and has been at the forefront of system safety development for the military and commercial aviation communities.




11|FAA Safety Team]]= Filed Under Aviation Leadership | Leave a CommentCheck out the FAA Safety Team website. Sign up to get info for your area and volunteer to be part of the Team.“Our Mission: Improve upon the Nation’s aviation accident rate by conveying safety principles and practices through training, outreach, and education; while establishing partnerships and encouraging the continual growth of a positive safety culture within the aviation community.”




10|Aviation Events]]= Filed Under Events | Leave a CommentHere is a great site that has a free listing of aviation related events.


11 Chuckie

Filed Under Aviation History | Leave a Comment

Chuckie is the Vintage Flying Museum B-17, and her namesake is a fantastic aviation safety advocate. Chuckie could not fly without teamwork.Vintage Flying Museum




3|Welcome to Signal Charlie]]= Filed Under News | Leave a CommentWelcome to Signal Charlie. Signal Charlie is being developed to promote safety in high reliability organizations, with a focus on aviation.When trying to decide on a name for the site, I remembered my Naval Aviator days and the codewords from the carrier, “Signal Charlie”, which meant that the flight deck was ready for landing ops. This was always a welcome message, especially after a long flight. Signal Charlie will be a site that advances the goal of smart flight operations in dynamic environments.Our site will be used to communicate ideas on an international deck, developing the same kinds of standardization that the International Code of Signals offers. Well developed, standardized procedures and efficient communication are key components of any quality system.The Charlie signal flag also means “Affirmative”, and this represents the proactive nature of a quality Safety Management System (SMS), the future of aviation safety. SMS components include an open reporting culture, risk management methodology and continuous improvement process. In SMS, people nurture partnerships that promote operational goals and safety. Positive communications fuel these partnerships, and Signal Charlie is meant to be a vehicle for critical team communications.
Please be patient as we add content to this site, and feel free to post your recommendations.
Fly Smart