About IBR
Founded in 1960 by prominent behavioral psychologist, Dr. Joseph V. Brady, the Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc. (IBR) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research, service, and educational organization dedicated to enhancing the growth of the behavioral sciences and their application to human affairs. IBR areas of focus and expertise include state-of-the-art behavior modeling, operational fatigue management research and application, and team performance assessment and maximization. Also, IBR’s REACH program (Recovery Enhanced by Access to Comprehensive Healthcare) has been formally recognized for its premiere clinical substance abuse treatment services. IBR currently treats between 400 and 500 patients daily and supports an ongoing program of research on substance abuse treatment.

Fatigue Management

Scheduling Assessment
IBR has recently combined its fifty year history of behavioral research with recent advances in fatigue research and modeling to address important human performance problems in the workplace. Fatigue issues related to scheduling are complex because of diverse and extensive factors, such as work requirements, seniority, specific job skills, rotating positions, and lifestyle/ financial issues, to name a few. IBR scientifically assesses current scheduling practices for strengths and vulnerabilities, which allows for the manipulation of total sleep time and occurrence of split sleep periods as well as the placement of sleep and critical tasks in relation to circadian phase and adjustment associated with crossing time zones. Through the use of state-of-the-art biomathematical fatigue modeling, IBR is able to objectively assess scheduling-related fatigue so that employers can schedule work and rest to minimize performance degradation due to fatigue. With increasing governmental and corporate recognition of schedule-related fatigue risks along with the public awareness of their impact, IBR provides a proactive approach to the problem of fatigue-inducing work practices.

Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS) Planning and Implementation
As part of a continuous safety improvement process, which includes identifying and addressing fatigue factors across time and changing circumstances, IBR assists in tailoring FRMS systems to fatigue challenges in a variety of operational settings. By monitoring work schedules and using subjective and objective measures of fatigue effects, IBR generates valuable data within a non-punitive reporting system as part of an overall risk oversight process. Coupled with our recognized computer modeling expertise, IBR helps to plan and implement an FRMS program that 1) measures and assesses current conditions, 2) provides analysis and modeling to determine root causes of fatigue, 3) helps management devise strategies to mitigate operational fatigue risk, 4) provides employees with specific guidance for behavioral changes and life-style decisions to reduce fatigue and 5) generates overall assessment and feedback of FRMS success. IBR was contracted by the FAA to design guidelines for implementation of FRMS in aviation.



Operational Research
IBR offers a broad range of research expertise, both in-lab and field studies, among a diverse range of operational environments including, aviation, trucking, rail, military, and energy, among others. IBR works with clients to establish objectives, generate hypotheses, conduct protocol overview, and design interventions, all within a behavioral safety approach that takes existing policies and procedures into consideration. In addition, IBR uses state-of the-art equipment for objective data collection, including wrist actigraphy to measure sleep quality and quantity, Psychomotor Vigilance Testing (PVT) to assess performance, PDA-based sleep/activity logger, high-tech simulators and modeling tools (FAST™) to predict performance and recommend optimal schedules.
Behavioral Modeling
With support from U.S. Departments of Defense (DoD) and Transportation (DOT), IBR President, Dr. Steven Hursh, created the SAFTE (Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness) biomathematical model of human fatigue and circadian variation, one of IBR’s signature services. The patented SAFTE model has received broad scientific review and the DoD considers it the most complete, accurate, and operationally practical model available to aid operator scheduling. It has been adopted as the DoD model for warfighter fatigue assessment and is now being used by the Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Railroad Administration for fatigue assessments in transportation. The science behind SAFTE led to the development of FAST (Fatigue Avoidance and Safety Tool), a computer application designed to predict and prevent fatigue in operational settings. The output of FAST is an empirically-derived performance effectiveness score used to quantify potential fatigue risks. Both the SAFTE model and proprietary FAST application are critical fatigue management tools used in a variety of applications. The model has been independently tested and compared to other models from around the world and found to have the least error of any available model. It has been validated as a predictor of accidents in operational environments. The FAST software is currently licensed to fourteen major aviation carriers and seventeen government regulatory agencies worldwide for fatigue assessment in the workplace.
Technology Synergy and Validation
The SAFTE/FAST software naturally interfaces with several commercial activity monitors for unobtrusive measurement of sleep patterns in workers. This technology has been used extensively to model predicted fatigue in a range of railroad worker groups (engineers, dispatchers, maintenance and signalmen) and has been adopted by the FAA for investigation of sleep and fatigue in flight crews. The model has been implemented into a roster evaluation tool that can rank order a large database of schedules according to fatigue metrics derived from the SAFTE model.

The Federal Railroad Administration sponsored a study by IBR to validate SAFTE/FAST for predicting accident risk in the rail industry based solely on work schedule information. The validation was successful and proved that the model predicts both elevated risk and severity of accidents resulting from work schedule induced fatigue.

Scientific Expertise


Dr. Steven R. Hursh, President of IBR, is the inventor of the Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) model and the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool (FAST). Dr. Hursh is adjunct Professor of Behavioral Biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Dr. Melissa M. Mallis, is IBR’s Chief Scientist for Fatigue and Operational Research. She is the former head of the NASA fatigue countermeasures research program and author of numerous papers on fatigue monitoring and countermeasures.

Dr. Francine James is IBR’s Associate Scientist for Fatigue and Operational Research. She has more than 10 years experience conducting behavioral and physiological studies of human sleep, circadian rhythms and fatigue management in the workplace
Client History – Human Performance Research and Consulting
IBR is currently engaged in two major studies of operational fatigue. We were selected by the FAA to implement a Congressionally mandated study of fatigue in flight attendants and are half-way through a study of 200 subjects flying regional, transcontinental, and international routes. IBR was also selected by Transport Canada and the Federal Motor Carriers Safety Administration to conduct a study of fatigue with 200 over-the-road truck drivers and test several candidate scheduling techniques to reduce fatigue. IBR has perfected operational monitoring of sleep using inexpensive actigraphy and hand-held cell phone-based data assistance for collecting logbook data, subjective alertness ratings, and performance on a psychomotor vigilance test. Historically and currently, we have funding from the following agencies to study human performance.

· National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)
· National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
· Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
· Federal Motor Carriers Safety Administration (FMCSA)
· Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)
· Transport Canada
· US Army, Air Force and DoD
· Canadian Defence Forces
· A major U.S. petrochemical company (confidential) and other commercial customers in shift work industries
Government and Commercial Endorsement and Application of the SAFTE/FAST Fatigue Modeling System
· Adopted as the DoD warfighter fatigue model used across the services
· The Federal Aviation Administration uses SAFTE/FAST to assess fatigue risk associated with proposed ultra-long range routes and proposed rules
· Two major aviation carriers planning to filter all schedules through SAFTE/FAST
· The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) – accident investigation and fatigue risk management
· NTSB – accident investigation
· Air Force and Navy aviation safety centers – accidents
· All Air Force flight surgeons trained on FAST
· The Air National Guard - overseas government executive flights
· Army unit level fatigue tool using SAFTE under development
· NASA medical risk model using SAFTE under development for ISS and beyond
· The Canadian Defense Aviation Establishment
· Several other Canadian regulatory agencies
· Professional sports teams